Mid Day Meal Essay Outline
Impact of Mid-Day Meal Programme on Educational Level: A Case Study of Ballabhpur Village, Birbhum District, and West Bengal
|Md. Firojuddin Molla1, Jumafuddin Sheikh2|
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The mid-day meal scheme is the popular name for the school programmed in India. Its provide launch free off cost to school children’s on all working days. The key objectives of the programme to protect the student from the class room hunger, increasing school enrolment and attendance, addressing malnutrition and social empowerment through provision of employment to women’s. This paper attempt to analysis the levels of education in different family size wise, age group wise, and per capita income wise in the study areas. Literacy in the India is key for socioeconomic progress, and the Indian literacy rate grew to 74.04% in 2011 from 12% at the end of British rule in 1947. Although this was a greater than sixfold improvement, the level is well below the world average literacy rate of 84%, and India currently has the largest illiterate population of any nation on earth. Despite government programs, India’s literacy rate increased only “sluggishly” and a 1990 study estimated that it would take until 2060 for India to achieve universal literacy at then-current rate of progress. The 2011 census, however, indicated a 2001-2011 decadal literacy growth of 9.2%, which is the slower than the growth seen during the previous decade.
|Mid-day meal, Literacy, Per capita income|
|Literacy and level of education are basic indicators of the level of development which achieved by a society .In world scenario Spread of literacy is generally associated with important of modern civilization such as modernization, urbanization, industrialization, communication and commerce. Literacy forms an important input in overall development of individuals enabling them to comprehend their social, political and cultural environment better and respond to it appropriately. Higher levels of education and literacy lead to a greater awareness of society and also contributes in improvement of economic and social attributes. It acts as a catalyst for social upliftment enhancing the returns on investment made in almost every aspect of development effort, be it population control, health, hygiene, environmental degradation control, employment of weaker sections of the society. Today the level of education is positively correlated with a beneficial programme mid-day meal. In India in madras state first time this programme is start in 1925, then in Kolkata 1928, also in nation level the Mid-day Meal Scheme was launched by the Government of India in 1995 and the Cooked Mid-Day-Meal Programme was started in West Bengal in 1100 schools of six districts from January, 2003. This programme is popularly known as a public welfare concept in India. The mid –day meal scheme is the popular name for the school programmed in India. Its provide launch free off cost to school children on all working days. The key objectives of the programme is to protect the student from the class room from hunger, increasing school enrollment and attendance, addressing malnutrition and social empowerment through provision of employment to women’s. This paper attempt to find out the levels of education in different family size wise, age group wise, per capita income wise in the study areas and also shown how Mid-day meal program impact on educational levels. The success of this scheme is illustrated by the tremendous increase in the school participation and enrolment rates in Tamil Nadu ( Sengupta, 2012).|
|Implementation of mid-day meal programme is an incredible attempt of Govt. of India .To enhance literacy rate in rural area, was implemented with objectives of the programme to protect the student from the class room hunger, increasing school enrolment and attendance, addressing mal nutrition and social empowerment through provision of employment to women’s. Literacy is essential for eradicating poverty and mental isolation, for cultivating peaceful and friendly international and for permitting the free play of demographic processes. Various studies have been conducted in India about mid-day meal scheme and studentsÃ¢ÂÂ achievement in schools (Dreze & Goyal, 2003; Dreze & Kingdon, 2001; Khera, 2002; Mondal et al, 2007 etc.). Most of the studies revealed that there exist a positive relationship between mid-day meal program and enrolment and attendance of students in schools including education and health outcomes of students.|
|Following objectives have been used for the research work are- To examine the impact of mid-day meal programme on education level, to evaluate educational condition of the study area, try to find out the problems of education and school dropouts in different level of the study area, to analyses the demographic profile and Educational status.|
DATA BASE AND METHODOLOGY
|The data have been collected based on both secondary and primary for the study area. Secondary data have been collected from published and other published organization. The collected primary data have been analyzed into simple percentage, firstly which is categorized into family member based on size of house hold. The primary data collected through the direct field investigation. The field investigation has been conducted with a well designed questioner. A direct interview has been conducted with a person from each sampled household of the Village. Sampled households were selected on the basis of random sampling technique. A total of 50 households have been selected from 129 households on the basis of sampling techniques.|
|The present work has been accomplished with both quantitative as well as qualitative technique. Among the quantitative techniques, both simple and standard statistical techniques have been applied to gather the facts. Simple percentage technique has been used to analyze the socio-cultural and economic status of the households of the study area.|
|Table 1 Demographic profile of the study area, 2013|
|The village Ballabhpur village is located to the North and North West of Santiniketan about 3.5 km. away from Vishwa Bharati. The geographical location of this village is confined within the latitudes of 230 41’ 54” N and 260 42’ 26” N and longitudes of 870 40’ 07” E and 870 40’ 37” E in the police-station and subdivision of Bolpur, Dist- Birbhum, W.B. This included in the topographical map of survey of India No. 73M/10 and J. L. No. of this mouza is 64.|
|Table: 2 Distribution of population among the sampled households, Ballabhpur Village, 2013|
|The table 2 reveals that the distribution of population of Ballabhpur Village. It has been counted that 40 percent male and 35 percent female population which belongs to Scheduled Caste category come under the group of less than 3 household sizes. There is no percentage of Scheduled Tribe population comes under the category of less than 3 and 4-5 family size. On the other hand highest percentage Scheduled Tribe population (13.04 percent male and 10.62 percent female) belong to 5-6 category of families. Highest percentage of General population (26.08 percent male and 39.13 percent female) comes under the group of 4-5 family size.|
|By the close observation of this table 2, it have been conclude that most of the families belongs to the scheduled caste and scheduled tribe category in that area.|
|Table: 3 Age-group wise distribution of population among the sampled households, Ballabhpur Village, 2013|
|Table 3 focused on the age-group wise distribution of population of sampled household. The highest percentage of population (50 percent male and 50 percent female) belong to 18-40 and 40-60 age group which come under the category of less than 3 household size and lowest percentage of population which belongs to less than 6, 16- 18 and more than 60 age group. On the other hand highest percentage of population (33.33 percent) belongs to 6-18 age groups and comes under the 4-5 household size. Another 23.01 percentage of population which has been belongs to less than 6 age groups come under the categories of more than 8 size of household. Highest percentage of population (15.38 percent) which has been belongs to more than 60 age groups and comes under the category of more than 5 size of household.|
|By the close observation of this table 3 it have been conclude that the area is having major percentage of male and female populations belongs to 18-40 and 40-60 years of age group.|
|Table 4 Educational status among the sampled household, Ballabhpur Village, 2013|
|The table 6 reveals that the education status of Ballabhpur Village. Average literacy rate of this village is less than 55 percent; male percentage is 54.02 and female 45.92 percent. The family has 4-5 persons they have higher educated and they carry their qualification up to M.A. / M.Sc. level. The family having four to five of they have high percentage in primary stage but in higher level educated percentage is very low. In this category 60.72 percent male and 39.28 percent female are literate. Another 52.63 percent male and 46.36 percent female literate people come under the category of more than five family members. By the close observation it has been identified that most of the male persons are preferred to give education by their parents than the female. The population has rarely got the opportunity to go the school or college. After the analysis it can evaluate that the education condition of Ballabhpur Village is very poor. Peoples are unable to bear as their education purpose due to poor economic condition.|
|Table: 5 Income distributions among the sampled households, Ballabhpur Village, 2012|
|The income level is depicted by the table 5 which shows that highest per capita income has Rs. 1650 and lowest per capita income is Rs. 860 which comes under the category of 4-5 and 6-7 size of household. More than 50 percent of households as their per capita income have Rs 500-900 under the category of 6-7 and their average per capita income is Rs. 860. Another 50 percent household belongs to under the category of 4-5 and their average per capita income is Rs. 1650. Average per capita income Rs. 1050, which have comes under the group of less than 3 family members of household. In category which comes under group of more than 5 members in a family have average per capita income is Rs. 860. Apart from the analysis it has been identified that economic condition of Ballabhpur Village is very poor due to lack of source and employment facilities.|
|Table 6 Respondents Observation for Mid-day Meal Programme among Sampled House Hold, Ballabhpur Village, 2013|
|Table 6 and figure reveals that the respondent’s observations for Mid-day Meal programme of selected study area. It has been identify that 80 percent respondents view is positive about Mid-day Meal programme. According to their view is that Mid-day meal programme increasing literacy level, on the other hand only 20 percent respondents’ view is negative about Mid-day Meal programme and according to their observation is no effect of Mid-day Meal programme on primary education system. Another 72 percent respondent’s observations about Mid-day meal programme increase children school attendance is positive but on the other hand only 28 percent respondents does not believed that the Mid-day meal programme increase children school attendance. It has been also identify that the 60 percent respondents believed on constraints of mass education and the other hand 40 percent respondents does not believed on constraints of mass education. About ways of overcoming 30 percent respondents view is positive on the other hand 70 percent negative respondents identified. So it has been conclude that Mid-day Meal programme is use full tools for the increase of school attendance children.|
|Table 7 depicts that the mother education condition of the selected study area, this is to identify that the only 20 percent mother’s education qualification is up to class 10th level which come under the group of less than 3 family members on the other hand 100 percent up to primary level which come under the group of 4 – 5 family members. It has been also identify that 89 percent education qualification is up to class 8th level which come under the group of 4 – 5 family member on the other hand 40 percent up to class 12th level which also come under the same group. Another 60 percent education level up to 12th which come under the group of 6 – 7 family members on the other hand only 20 percent come under the group of more than 8 family members and their education level is up to 10th.|
|Table 8 Fathers Education Condition of Ballabhpur Village, 2013|
|Table 8 depicts that the father education condition of the Ballabhpur Village, this is to identify that the only 25 percent father’s education qualification is up to primary level which come under the group of less than 3 family members on the other hand 29 percent up to class 8th level which come under the same group. It has been also identify that 100 percent education qualification is up to class graduation level which come under the group of 4 – 5 family member on the other hand only 33 percent up to class M.A. / M.Sc. level which also come under the same group. Another 33 percent father’s education level is up to M.A. / M.Sc. which come under the group of 6 – 7 family members on the other hand 34 percent come under the group of more than 8 family members and their education level is up to same level.|
|After go through the study it has been concluded that the Mi-day Meal programme helped to increase the school attendance children in primary level. So, it may be mention that the quantity of the school attendance children in primary level is increases but quality of the students falling down due to lack of management of this concerned programme. For, suitable utilization this programme Government should be makes proper rules and regulation, and also all the parents to be concerned about this programme and teacher must be maintain the above condition properly for sustainable education development.|
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|Midday Meal Scheme|
Primary school children receiving Midday Meal in Maharashtra
The Midday Meal Scheme is a school meal programme of the Government of India designed to improve the nutritional status of school-age children nationwide. The programme supplies free lunches on working days for children in primary and upper primary classes in government, government aided, local body, Education Guarantee Scheme, and alternate innovative education centres, Madarsa and Maqtabs supported under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, and National Child Labour Project schools run by the ministry of labour. Serving 120,000,000 children in over 1,265,000 schools and Education Guarantee Scheme centres, it is the largest such programme in the world.
Under article 24, paragraph 2c of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, to which India is a party, India has committed to providing "adequate nutritious foods" for children. The programme has undergone many changes since its launch in 1995. The Midday Meal Scheme is covered by the National Food Security Act, 2013. The legal backing to the Indian school meal programme is similar to the legal backing provided in the US through the National School Lunch Act.
Pre-independence and post-independence initiatives
The roots of the programme can be traced back to the pre-independence era, when a mid day meal programme was introduced in 1925 in Madras Corporation by the British administration. A mid day meal programme was introduced in the Union Territory of Puducherry by the French administration in 1930.
Initiatives by state governments to children began with their launch of a mid day meal programme in primary schools in the 1962–63 school year. Tamil Nadu is a pioneer in introducing mid day meal programmes in India to increase the number of kids coming to school; Thiru K. Kamaraj, then Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, introduced it first in Chennai and later extended it to all districts of Tamil Nadu.
During 1982, July 1st onwards, the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, Thiru. M. G. Ramachandran upgraded the existing Mid-day meal scheme in the state to 'Nutritious food scheme' keeping in the mind that 68 lakh children suffer malnutrition.
Gujarat was the second state to introduce an MDM scheme in 1984, but it was later discontinued.
A midday meal scheme was introduced in Kerala in 1984, and was gradually expanded to include more schools and grades. By 1990–91, twelve states were funding the scheme to all or most of the students in their area: Goa, Gujarat, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura and Uttar Pradesh. Karnataka, Orissa, and West Bengal received international aid to help with implementation of the programme, and in Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan the programme was funded entirely using foreign aid.
In Karnataka, Children's LoveCastles Trust started to provide mid-day meals in 1997. A total of eight schools were adopted and a food bank programme and an Angganwasi milk Programme were started. The food-bank programme was replaced by the State Government midday meal scheme.
Initiatives by the central government
The government of India initiated the National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE) on 15 August 1995. The objective of the scheme is to help improve the effectiveness of primary education by improving the nutritional status of primary school children. Initially, the scheme was implemented in 2,408 blocks of the country to provide food to students in classes one through five of government, government-aided and local body run schools. By 1997–98, the scheme had been implemented across the country. Under this programme, a cooked mid day meal with 300 calories and 12 grams of protein is provided to all children enrolled in classes one to five. In October 2007, the scheme included students in upper primary classes of six to eight in 3,479 educationally backward blocks, and the name was changed from National Programme for Nutrition Support to Primary Education to National Programme of Mid Day Meals in Schools.
Though cooked food was to be provided, most states (apart from those already providing cooked food) chose to provide "dry rations" to students. "Dry rations" refers to the provision of uncooked 3 kg of wheat or rice to children with 80% attendance.
Supreme court order
In April 2001, the People’s Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL) initiated the public interest litigation (Civil) No. 196/2001, People’s Union for Civil Liberties v. Union of India & Others – popularly known as the "right to food" case. The PUCL argued that article 21 – "right to life" of the Indian constitution when read together with articles 39(a) and 47, makes the right to food a derived fundamental right which is enforceable by virtue of the constitutional remedy provided under article 32 of the constitution. The PUCL argued that excess food stocks with the Food Corporation of India should be fed to hungry citizens. This included providing mid day meals in primary schools. The scheme came into force with the supreme court order dated 28 November 2001, which requires all government and government-assisted primary schools to provide cooked midday meals.
The supreme court occasionally issues interim orders regarding midday meals. Some examples are:
|Order regarding||Exact text||Order dated|
|Basic entitlement||"Every child in every Government and Government assisted Primary Schools with a prepared mid day meal with a minimum content of 300 calories and 8–12 grams of protein each day of school for a minimum of 200 days"||28 November 2001|
|Charges on conversion cost||"The conversion costs for a cooked meal, under no circumstances, shall be recovered from the children or their parents"||20 April 2004|
|Central assistance||"The Central Government... shall also allocate funds to meet with the conversion costs of food-grains into cooked midday meals"||20 April 2004|
|Kitchen sheds||"The Central Government shall make provisions for construction of kitchen sheds"||20 April 2004|
|Priority to Dalit cooks||"In appointment of cooks and helpers, preference shall be given to Dalits, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes"||20 April 2004|
|Quality safeguards||"Attempts shall be made for better infrastructure, improved facilities (safe drinking water etc.), closer monitoring (regular inspection etc.) and other quality safeguards as also the improvement of the contents of the meal so as to provide nutritious meal to the children of the primary schools"||20 April 2004|
|Drought areas||"In drought affected areas, midday meals shall be supplied even during summer vacations"||20 April 2004|
The nutritional guidelines for the minimum amount of food and calorie content per child per day are:
|Item||Primary (class one to five)||Upper primary (class six to eight)|
|Protein (in grams )||12||20|
|Rice / wheat (in grams )||100||150|
|Dal (in grams )||20||30|
|Vegetables (in grams )||50||75|
|Oil and fat (in grams )||5||7.5|
In the case of micronutrients (vitamin A, iron, and folate) tablets and de-worming medicines, the student is entitled to receive the amount provided for in the school health programme of the National Rural Health Mission.
The central and state governments share the cost of the Midday Meal Scheme, with the centre providing 60 percent and the states 40 percent. The central government provides grains and financing for other food. Costs for facilities, transportation, and labour is shared by the federal and state governments. The participating states contribute different amounts of money. While the eleventh five-year plan allocated ₹384.9 billion (US$5.9 billion) for the scheme, the twelfth five-year plan has allocated ₹901.55 billion (US$14 billion), a 134 percent rise. The public expenditure for the Mid Day Meal Programme has gone up from ₹73.24 billion (US$1.1 billion) in 2007–08 to ₹132.15 billion (US$2.0 billion) in 2013–14. The per day cooking cost per child at the primary level has been fixed to ₹4.13 (6.3¢ US) while at the upper primary level is ₹6.18 (9.5¢ US).
This is the most widespread practice. In the decentralised model, meals are cooked on-site by local cooks and helpers or self-help groups. This system has the advantage of being able to serve local cuisine, providing jobs in the area, and minimising waste. It also allows for better monitoring (e.g., by parents and teachers).
In the absence of adequate infrastructure (such as kitchen sheds, utensils etc.), it can lead to accidents and maintaining hygiene can be difficult. In 2004, 87 children died when the thatched roof of a classroom was ignited by sparks from a cooking fire,. In 2011, a child died after succumbing to burn injuries she sustained after accidentally falling into a cooking vessel.
In the centralised model, an external organisation cooks and delivers the meal to schools, mostly through public-private partnerships. Centralised kitchens are seen more in urban areas, where density of schools is high so that transporting food is a financially viable option. Advantages of centralised kitchens include ensuring better hygienic as large scale cooking is done through largely automated processes. Various NGOs such as the Akshaya Patra Foundation, Ekta Shakti Foundation, Naandi Foundation, and Jay Gee Humanitarian Society & People's Forum provides mid-day meals.
A study of centralised kitchens in Delhi in 2007 found that even with centralised kitchens, the quality of food needed to be improved. The study also found that when the food arrives and is of inadequate quality, even teachers feel helpless and do not know whom to complain to.
The Ministry of Human Resource Development reported that 95% of tested meal samples prepared by NGOs in Delhi did not meet nutritional standards in 2010–12. In response, the ministry withheld 50% of the payment for the deficient meals.
International voluntary and charity organisations have assisted. Church World Service has provided milk powder to Delhi and Madras Municipal Corporation; CARE has provided corn soya meal, Bulgar wheat, and vegetable oils; and UNICEF has provided high proteins foods and educational support. In 1982, 'Food for Learning' was launched with assistance from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Initially the programme was aimed at scheduled caste and scheduled tribe girls. In 1983, the federal Department of Education prepared a scheme under the auspices of the World Food Programme to supply meals to 13.6 million scheduled caste girls and 10.09 million scheduled tribe girls in classes one to five in 15 states and three union territories. The value of the food itself was $163.27 million per year. Labour, facilities, and transportation costs were to be paid by the state governments. The reaction among the states and union territories was mixed. Many states were interested, but some were concerned about their ability to afford it if the FAO support were to be withdrawn.
Monitoring and evaluation
|Level||Committee||Frequency of meeting|
|National||The national level steering / monitoring committee|
Program Approval Board (PAB)
|State||The state level steering / monitoring committee||Quarterly|
|District||The district level committee||Monthly|
|Municipal||The municipal committee||Monthly|
|Block||The Mandal level committee||Fortnightly|
|Village||Panchayat level sub-committee||Day-to-day functioning of the implementing of the scheme|
|School||School management and development committee|
or Parent Teacher Association.
|Monthly and as when it is |
The government of India Review Missions on Mid Day Meal Scheme, comprising members from the central government, state governments, UNICEF, and the office of the supreme court commissioner was created in 2010 to review the programme and offer suggestions for improvement. The scheme is independently monitored twice a year.
Evaluation of the scheme
The MDM scheme has many potential benefits: attracting children from disadvantaged sections (especially girls, Dalits and Adivasis) to school, improving regularity, nutritional benefits, socialisation benefits and benefits to women are some that have been highlighted.
Studies by economists show that some of these benefits have indeed been realised. The positive effect on enrollment of disadvantaged children (Dreze and Kingdon), on attendance (by Chakraborty, Jayaraman, Pande), on learning effort (by Booruah, Afridi and Somanathan), on improving nutritional inputs (Afridi), on improving nutritional outcomes (by Singh, Dercon and Parker), and so on.
Caste based discrimination continues to occur in the serving of food, though the government seems unwilling to acknowledge this. Sukhdeo Thorat and Joel Lee found in their 2005 study that caste discrimination was occurring in conjunction with the Mid Day Meals programme.
Media reports also document the positive effect of the programme for women, especially working women and its popularity among parents, children and teachers alike. Media reports have also highlighted several implementation issues, including irregularity, corruption, hygiene, caste discrimination, etc. A few such incidents are listed below:
- In December 2005, Delhi police seized eight trucks laden with 2,760 sacks of rice meant for primary school children. The rice was being transported from Food Corporation of India godowns Bulandshahr district to North Delhi. The police stopped the trucks and investigators later discovered that the rice was being stolen by an NGO.
- In November 2006, the residents of Pembong village (30 km from Darjeeling) accused a group of teachers of embezzling midday meals. In a written complaint, the residents claimed that students at the primary school had not received their midday meal for the past year and a half.
- In December 2006, The Times of India reported that school staff were inflating attendance in order to obtain food grains.
- Twenty-three children died in Dharma Sati village in Saran District on 16 July 2013 after eating pesticide-contaminated mid day meals. On 31 July 2013, 55 students at a government middle school fell ill at Kalyuga village in Jamui district after their midday meal provided by an NGO. On the same day, 95 students at Chamandi primary school in Arwal district were ill after their meal.
Despite the success of the program, child hunger as a problem persists in India. According to current statistics, 42.5% of the children under 5 are underweight. Some simple health measures such as using iodised salt and getting vaccinations are uncommon in India. "India is home to the world's largest food insecure population, with more than 500 million people who are hungry", India State Hunger Index (ISHI) said. Many children don't get enough to eat, which has far-reaching implications for the performance of the country as a whole. "Its rates of child malnutrition is higher than most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa," it noted. The 2009 Global Hunger Index ranked India at 65 out of 84 countries. More than 200 million went hungry in India that year, more than any other country in the world. The report states that "improving child nutrition is of utmost urgency in most Indian states".
- ^ abChettiparambil-Rajan, Angelique (July 2007). "India: A Desk Review of the Mid-Day Meals Programme"(PDF). Retrieved 28 July 2013.
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- ^Garg, Manisha; Mandal, Kalyan Sankar (27 July 2013). "Mid-Day Meal for the Poor, Privatised Education for the Non-Poor". Economic and Political Weekly. 48 (30): 155. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- ^"Agenda note of 5th meeting of National Steering and Moitoring Committee meeting"(PDF).
- ^Dr. N.C. Saxena. "Sixth Report Of the Commissioners"(PDF).
- ^"Right to Food Campaign: Mid Day Meals". Righttofoodindia.org. 20 October 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- ^ abc"Mid Day Meals: A Primer"(PDF). Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- ^"Legal Action: Supreme Court Orders". Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- ^"SUPREME COURT ORDER OF NOVEMBER 28, 2001". Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- ^ abcdef"ORDER OF APR 20, 2004".
- ^"Guidelines of the School Health Programme"(PDF). Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- ^ abPress Information bureau, HRD, Govt of India (22 December 2015). "Mid-Day Meal Scheme, Nutrition and Corporate Capital". Press Information. Ministry of Human Resource Development (30). Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- ^ abJoyita Ghose (23 July 2013). "the PRS Blog " The Mid Day Meal Scheme". Prsindia.org. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- ^"123% jump in money allocated for UPA flagship schemes". Business Standard. 1 January 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- ^ ab"Chargesheet filed in Bihar midday meal tragedy". The Hindu. 22 October 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- ^"MHRD increases Cooking cost under mid-day meal scheme". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
- ^"Interrogating 'best practices' for the Implementation of School Nutrition Programmes in Urban India"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- ^"87 children die in school fire". 17 July 2004. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- ^"'Gravy' mistake: 8-yr-old girl falls in hot sambar, dies". DNA India. 17 December 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- ^Towards more advantages from Mid-Day Meals http://www.cordindia.com/images/Midday.pdf
- ^"Capital's MCD schools mid-day meal scheme fails nutrition test!". Zeenews. india.com. 23 May 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- ^ abc"Historical Background". Nutrition Support to Education: Report of the Committee on Mid-Day Meals. Department of School Education and Literacy, Government of India. May 1995. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- ^"Mid Day Meal Scheme, First Review Mission"(PDF). Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- ^"Monitoring of Mid-Day-Meal Scheme" (Press release). Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- ^Future of Mid-Day Meals http://www.epw.in/special-articles/future-mid-day-meals.html
- ^see also http://indiatogether.org/mmassam-education
- ^"Caste and Gender Based Discrimination Under MDMS" (Press release). Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 14 December 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- ^Lee, Joel; Thorat, Sukhdeo (24 September 2005). "Caste Discrimination and Food Security Programmes". Economic and Political Weekly. 40 (39). JSTOR 4417187.
- ^see http://indiatogether.org/mdmukhand-poverty
- ^"Lid off massive scam in Mid-Day Meal Scheme: 2,760 sacks of rice seized". The Tribune, Delhi. 20 January 2006. Retrieved 2 December 2006.
- ^"Scam shadow on meal scheme". The Telegraph, Kolkata. 14 November 2006. Retrieved 2 December 2006.
- ^"Teacher blows whistle on scam: School Authorities Pocket Money In The Name Of Mid-Day Meal Scheme". The Times of India, Bangalore. 2 December 2006.
- ^"Students fall ill after midday meal in Bihar". The Hindu. 31 July 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
- ^Sengupta, Somini. (12 March 2009) Malnutrition of children in India continues. Nytimes.com. Retrieved on 18 February 2012.
- ^"Madhya Pradesh tops India State Hunger list of 17". LiveMint. 14 October 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- ^Hunger in India alarming. BBC News (14 October 2008). Retrieved on 18 February 2012.