1 Faegor

Research Papers Search

Back in 2010, we shared with you 100 awesome search engines and research resources in our post: 100 Time-Saving Search Engines for Serious Scholars. It’s been an incredible resource, but now, it’s time for an update. Some services have moved on, others have been created, and we’ve found some new discoveries, too. Many of our original 100 are still going strong, but we’ve updated where necessary and added some of our new favorites, too. Check out our new, up-to-date collection to discover the very best search engine for finding the academic results you’re looking for.

General

Need to get started with a more broad search? These academic search engines are great resources.

  1. iSEEK Education:iSeek is an excellent targeted search engine, designed especially for students, teachers, administrators, and caregivers. Find authoritative, intelligent, and time-saving resources in a safe, editor-reviewed environment with iSEEK.
  2. RefSeek:With more than 1 billion documents, web pages, books, journals, newspapers, and more, RefSeek offers authoritative resources in just about any subject, without all of the mess of sponsored links and commercial results.
  3. Virtual LRC:The Virtual Learning Resources Center has created a custom Google search, featuring only the best of academic information websites. This search is curated by teachers and library professionals around the world to share great resources for academic projects.
  4. Academic Index:This scholarly search engine and web directory was created just for college students. The websites in this index are selected by librarians, teachers, and educational consortia. Be sure to check out their research guides for history, health, criminal justice, and more.
  5. BUBL LINK:If you love the Dewey Decimal system, this Internet resource catalog is a great resource. Search using your own keywords, or browse subject areas with Dewey subject menus.
  6. Digital Library of the Commons Repository:Check out the DLC to find international literature including free and open access full-text articles, papers, and dissertations.
  7. OAIster:Search the OAIster database to find millions of digital resources from thousands of contributors, especially open access resources.
  8. Internet Public Library:Find resources by subject through the Internet Public Library’s database.
  9. Infomine:The Infomine is an incredible tool for finding scholarly Internet resource collections, especially in the sciences.
  10. Microsoft Academic Search:Microsoft’s academic search engine offers access to more than 38 million different publications, with features including maps, graphing, trends, and paths that show how authors are connected.
  11. Google Correlate:Google’s super cool search tool will allow you to find searches that correlate with real-world data.
  12. Wolfram|Alpha:Using expert-level knowledge, this search engine doesn’t just find links; it answers questions, does analysis, and generates reports.

Meta Search

Want the best of everything? Use these meta search engines that return results from multiple sites all at once.

  1. Dogpile:Find the best of all the major search engines with Dogpile, an engine that returns results from Google, Yahoo!, and Bing, with categories including Web, Images, Video, and even White Pages.
  2. MetaCrawler:MetaCrawler makes it easy to “search the search engines,” returning results from Google, Yahoo!, and Bing.
  3. Mamma:Check out the mother of all search engines to pin down the best resources on the web. Mamma even searches Twitter and job postings!

Databases and Archives

Resources like the Library of Congress have considerable archives and documents available, and many of them have taken their collections online. Use these search tools to get access to these incredible resources.

  1. Library of Congress:In this incredible library, you’ll get access to searchable source documents, historical photos, and amazing digital collections.
  2. Archives Hub:Find the best of what Britain has to offer in the Archives Hub. You’ll be able to search archives from almost 200 institutions from England, Scotland, and Wales.
  3. National Archives:Check out this resource for access to the National Archives. Find online, public access to find historic documents, research, government information, and more in a single search.
  4. arXiv e-Print Archive:Cornell University’s arXiv.org offers open access to a wealth of e-prints in math, science, and related subjects. Search this resource to find what you need among 756,133 documents and counting.
  5. Archivenet:An initiative of the Historical Centre Overijssel, Archivenet makes it easy to find Dutch archives and more.
  6. NASA Historical Archive:Explore the history of space in this historical archive from NASA, highlighting space history and manned missions.
  7. National Agricultural Library:A service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, you can find global information for agriculture in the National Agricultural Library.
  8. Smithsonian Institution Research Information System:Get access to the considerable resources of the Smithsonian Institution through the Research Information System, a great way to search more than 7.4 million records from the Smithsonian’s museums, archives, and libraries.
  9. The British Library Catalogues & Collections:Explore the British Library catalogues, printed materials, digital collections, and even collection blogs for a wealth of resources.
  10. CIA World Factbook:As the center of intelligence, the CIA has certainly done its job with The World Factbook, offering information on major reference information around the world. History, people, government, economy, and more are all covered in this online publication.
  11. State Legislative Websites Directory:Use this database to find information from the legislatures of all 50 U.S. states, DC, and the Territories. You can look up bills, statutes, legislators, and more with this excellent tool.
  12. OpenDOAR:In the Directory of Open Access Repositories, you can search through freely academic research information with more directly useful resources.
  13. Catalog of U.S. Government Publications:Search through the Catalog of U.S. Government Publications to find descriptive records for historical and current publications, with direct links where available.

Books & Journals

Instead of heading to the library to bury your face in the stacks, use these search engines to find out which libraries have the books you need, and maybe even find them available online.

  1. WorldCat:Find items from 10,000 libraries worldwide, with books, DVDs, CDs, and articles up for grabs. You can even find your closest library with WorldCat’s tools.
  2. Google Books:Supercharge your research by searching this index of the world’s books. You’ll find millions for free and others you can preview to find out if they’re what you’re looking for.
  3. Scirus:For scientific information only, Scirus is a comprehensive research tool with more than 460 million scientific items including journal content, courseware, patents, educational websites, and more.
  4. HighBeam Research:Research articles and published sources with HighBeam Research’s tools. You’ll not only be able to search for what you’re looking for, you can also choose from featured research topics and articles. Note: HighBeam is a paid service.
  5. Vadlo:Vadlo is a life sciences search engine offering protocols, tools, and powerpoints for scientific research and discovery. Find what you’re looking for, and then stick around to check out the forums.
  6. Open Library:Find the world’s classic literature, open e-books, and other excellent open and free resources in the Open Library. You can even contribute to the library with information, corrections to the catalog, and curated lists.
  7. Online Journals Search Engine:In this free, powerful scientific search engine, you can discover journals, articles, research reports, and books in scientific publications.
  8. Google Scholar:Check out Google Scholar to find only scholarly resources on Google. The search specializes in articles, patents, and legal documents, and even has a resource for gathering your citations.
  9. Bioline International:Search Bioline International to get connected with a variety of scientific journals. The search is managed by scientists and librarians as a collaborative initiative between Bioline Toronto and and the Reference Center on Environmental Information.
  10. SpringerLink:Search through SpringerLink for electronic journals, protocols, and books in just about every subject possible. You can also browse publications by collection and content type.
  11. Directory of Open Access Journals:When you need top-quality journal writings for free, the Directory of Open Access Journals is a great place to check out. You’ll get access to a searchable journal of full-text quality controlled scientific and scholarly journals.
  12. Jurn:In this curated academic search engine, you’ll get results from over 4,000 free scholarly e-journals in the arts and humanities.

Science

With a focus on science, these academic search engines return all-science, all the time.

  1. SciSeek:In this science search engine and directory, you’ll find the best of what the science web has to offer. Browse by category, search by keyword, and even add new sites to the listings.
  2. Chem BioFinder:Register with PerkinElmer to check out the Chem BioFinder and look up information about chemicals, including their properties and reactions.
  3. Biology Browser:Biology Browser is a great resource for finding research, resources, and information in the field of biology. You can also check out their Zoological Record and BIOSIS Previews.
  4. Athenus:Athenus is an authority on science and engineering on the Web, sharing a directory and full-featured web search.
  5. SciCentral:Use SciCentral as your gateway to the best sources in science. This site has a literature search, journals, databases, and other great tools for finding what you need.
  6. Strategian:Strategian is a great place to find quality information in all fields of science. Featured resources include free full-text books, patents, and reports, as well as full-text journal and magazine articles, plus a special collection of Vintage Biology with important articles and books in biology.
  7. Science.gov:In this government science portal, you can search more than 50 databases and 2,100 selected websites from 12 federal agencies. This is an incredible resource for millions of pages of U.S. government science information.
  8. CERN Document Server:This organization for nuclear research serves up a great search and directory for experiments, archives, articles, books, presentations, and so much more within their documents.
  9. Analytical Sciences Digital Library:Through the Analytical Sciences Digital Library, you’ll find peer-reviewed, web-based educational resources in analytical sciences, featuring a variety of formats for techniques and applications.
  10. WorldWideScience:Use WorldWideScience.org as a global science gateway, offering excellent search results in the sciences, and even the option to select specific databases and find resources in your own language.

Math & Technology

Keep your results limited to only the best math and technology resources by using these search engines.

  1. MathGuide:Check out the MathGuide subject gateway to find online information sources in mathematics. The catalog offers not just a search, but a database of high quality Internet resources in math.
  2. ZMATH Online Database:Zentralblatt MATH’s online database has millions of entries from thousands of serials and journals dating back as far as 1826. Nearly 35,000 items were added in 2012 alone.
  3. Math WebSearch:This semantic search engine allows users to search with numbers and formulas instead of text.
  4. Current Index to Statistics:In this bibliographic index, you’ll find publications in statistics, probability, and related fields. There are more than 160 preferred journals, plus selected articles from 1,200 more and 11,000 statistics books to draw from in this search.
  5. Inspec:This database was made for scientists and engineers by the Institution of Engineering and Technology. You’ll find nearly 13 million abstracts and research literature, primarily in the fields of physics and engineering.
  6. CiteSeerX:Get searchable access to the Scientific Research Digital Library by using the CiteSeerX website.
  7. The Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies:Find more than 3 million references to journal articles, conference papers, and technical reports in computer science with this bibliography collection.
  8. Citebase:Still in experimental demonstration, Citebase Search is a resource for searching abstracts in math, technology, and more.

Social Science

Researchers working in the fields of psychology, anthropology, and related subjects will find great results using these search engines.

  1. Behavioral Brain Science Archive:Check out this searchable archive to find extensive psychology and brain science articles.
  2. Social Science Research Network:In this research network, you can find a wide variety of social science research from a number of specialized networks including cognitive science, leadership, management, and social insurance.
  3. Psycline:Find a journal with Psycline’s journal and article locator, a tool that offers access to more than 2,000 psychology and social science journals online.
  4. Social Sciences Citation Index:The Thomson Reuters Social Sciences Citation Index is a paid tool, but well worth its cost for the wealth of relevant articles, search tools, and thorough resources available.
  5. Ethnologue:Search the languages of the world with Ethnologue, offering an encyclopedic reference of all the world’s known living languages. You’ll also be able to find more than 28,000 citations in the Ethnologue’s language research bibliography.
  6. SocioSite:Use this site from the University of Amsterdam to browse sociological subjects including activism, culture, peace, and racism.
  7. The SocioWeb:Check out this guide to find all of the sociological resources you’ll need on the internet. The SocioWeb offers links to articles, essays, journals, blogs, and even a marketplace.
  8. WikiArt:With this custom Google search engine, you can find open access articles about archaeology.
  9. Encyclopedia of Psychology:Search or browse the Encyclopedia of Psychology to find basic information, and even translations for information about psychology careers, organizations, publications, people, and history.
  10. Anthropology Review Database:Through this database, you can get access to anthropology reviews, look up publishers, and find resources available for review.
  11. Anthropological Index Online:This anthropological online search includes both general search of 4,000 periodicals held in The British Museum Anthropology Library as well as Royal Anthropological Institute films.
  12. Political Information:Political Information is a search engine for politics, policy, and political news with more than 5,000 carefully selected websites for political information.

History

Find awesome resources for history through these search engines that index original documents, sources, and archives.

  1. David Rumsey Historical Map Collection:Use the LUNA Browser to check out David Rumsey’s Map Collection with more than 30,000 images, searchable by keyword.
  2. Genesis:Find excellent sources for women’s history with the Genesis dataset and extensive list of web resources.
  3. Fold3:Get access to historical military records through Fold3, the web’s premier collection of original military records and memorials.
  4. Internet Modern History Sourcebook:Use the Internet Modern History Sourcebook to find thousands of sources in modern history. Browse and search to find full texts, multimedia, and more.
  5. Library of Anglo-American Culture and History:Use the history guide from the Library of Anglo-American Culture and History for a subject catalog of recommended websites for historians, with about 11,000 to choose from.
  6. HistoryBuff:History Buff offers an online newspaper archive, reference library, and even a historical panoramas section in their free primary source material collection.
  7. Digital History:University of Houston’s Digital History database offers a wealth of links to textbook, primary sources, and educational materials in digital history. The database has multimedia, an interactive timeline, active learning, and resources for teachers.
  8. Internet Ancient History Sourcebook:The Internet Ancient History Sourcebook is a great place to study human origins, with full text and search on topics including Mesopotamia, Rome, the Hellenistic world, Late Antiquity, and Christian origins.
  9. History and Politics Out Loud:History and Politics Out Loud offers a searchable archive of important recordings through history, particularly politically significant audio materials.
  10. History Engine:In this tool for collaborative education and research, students can learn history by researching, writing, and publishing, creating a collection of historical articles in U.S. history that can be searched for here by scholars, teachers, and the general public.
  11. American History Online:Through American History Online, you can find and use primary sources from historical digital collections.

Business and Economics

Using these search engines, you’ll get access to business publications, journal articles, and more.

  1. BPubs:Search the Business Publications Search Engine for access to business and trade publications in a tool that offers not just excellent browsing, but a focused search as well.
  2. Virtual Library Labour History:Maintained by the International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, this library offers historians excellent content for learning about economics, business, and more.
  3. EconLit:Visit EconLit to access more than 120 years of economics literature from around the world in an easily searchable format. Find journal articles, books, book reviews, articles, working papers, and dissertations, as well as historic journal articles from 1886 to 1968.
  4. National Bureau of Economic Research:On this site, you can learn about and find access to great resources in economic research.
  5. Research Papers in Economics:Find research in economics and related sciences through the RePEc, a volunteer-maintained bibliographic database of working papers, articles, books, and even software components with more than 1.2 million research pieces.
  6. Corporate Information:Perfect for researching companies, Corporate Information offers an easy way to find corporate financial records.
  7. Inomics:Economists will enjoy this excellent site for finding economics resources, including jobs, courses, and even conferences.
  8. DailyStocks:Easily look up stocks with this search engine to monitor the stock market and your portfolio.
  9. EDGAR Search:The SEC requires certain disclosures that can be helpful to investors, and you can find them all here in this helpful, next-generation system for searching electronic investment documents.

Other Niches

Find even more specialized information in these niche search engines.

  1. PubMed:From the U.S. National Library of Medicine, PubMed is a great place to find full-text medical journal articles, with more than 19 million available.
  2. Lexis:Find reliable, authoritative information for legal search with the Lexis site.
  3. Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database:Visit this database to find more than 6,300 records relating to human health in the circumpolar region.
  4. Education Resources Information Center:In the ERIC Collection, you’ll find bibliographic records of education literature, as well as a growing collection of full-text resources.
  5. MedlinePlus:A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine, Medline Plus offers a powerful search tool and even a dictionary for finding trusted, carefully chosen health information.
  6. Artcyclopedia:Search Artcyclopedia to find everything there is to know about fine art, with 160,000 links, 9,000 artists listed, and 2,900 art sites indexed.

Reference

Get connected with great reference material through these search tools.

  1. Merriam-Webster Dictionary and Thesaurus:Use this online dictionary and thesaurus to quickly find definitions and synonyms.
  2. References.net:Through References.net, you can get connected with just about every reference tool available, from patents to almanacs.
  3. Quotes.net:Need the right thing to say? Check out Quotes.net to reference famous words from famous people.
  4. Literary Encyclopedia:Check out the Literary Encyclopedia to get access to reference materials in literature, history, and culture.

This is a cross-post from content partners at onlineUniversities.com; image attribution flickr user fotografaleen

This page contains a representative list of major databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in academic journals, repositories, archives, or other collections of scientific and other articles. As the distinction between a database and a search engine is unclear for these complex document retrieval systems, see:

  • the general list of search engines for all-purpose search engines that can be used for academic purposes
  • bibliographic databases for information about databases giving bibliographic information about finding books and journal articles.

Note that "free" or "subscription" can refer both to the availability of the database or of the journal articles included. This has been indicated as precisely as possible in the lists below.

This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries.

NameDiscipline(s)DescriptionAccess CostProvider(s)
Academic SearchMultidisciplinarySeveral versions: Complete, Elite, Premier, and Alumni Edition[1]SubscriptionEBSCO Publishing[2]
Aerospace & High Technology DatabaseAerospace, Aeronautics, AstronauticsSubscriptionProQuest[3]
African Journals OnLine (AJOL)MultidisciplinaryScholarly journals published in Africa[4]Free abstracts; Subscription full-textAfrican Journals OnLine[5]
AgeLineSociology, GerontologyIncludes information on aging-related topics, including economics, public health and policy.SubscriptionEBSCO Publishing[6]
AGRICOLA: Agricultural Online AccessAgricultureFree & SubscriptionProduced by the United States National Agricultural Library. Free access provided by NAL.[7] Subscription access provided by ProQuest,[8]OVID.[9]
AGRIS: Agricultural databaseAgricultureCovers agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, aquatic sciences and fisheries, human nutrition, extension literature from over 100 participating countries.

Material includes unique grey literature such as unpublished scientific and technical reports, theses, conference papers, government publications, and more.

FreeProduced by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. AGRIS
Airiti IncMultidisciplinarySubscriptionAiriti Inc[10]
Analytical AbstractsChemistrySubscriptionRoyal Society of Chemistry[11]
Analytical sciences digital libraryAnalytical chemistryFreeNational Science Digital Library and the Analytical Chemistry Division of the American Chemical Society[12]
Anthropological Index OnlineAnthropologyIndex only (no abstracts or full-text).FreeRoyal Anthropological Institute[13]
Anthropological LiteratureAnthropologyFree to Harvard faculty, staff and students. Subscription for non-Harvard access.Maintained by Harvard University. Non-Harvard access provided by OCLC[14]
ArachneArchaeology, Art historyGerman languageFreeGerman Archaeological Institute & the University of Cologne[15]
ArnetminerComputer ScienceOnline service used to index and search academic social networksFreeTsinghua University[16]
Arts & Humanities Citation IndexArts, HumanitiesPart of Web of ScienceSubscriptionClarivate Analytics[17]
arXivPhysics, Mathematics, Computer science, Nonlinear sciences, Quantitative biology and StatisticsRepository of electronic pre-prints of papers in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, computer science, quantitative biology, statistics, and quantitative finance.FreeCornell University[18]
ASCE LibraryCivil Engineeringall civil engineering disciplines including structural engineering, geotechnical engineering, transportation engineering, construction engineering, environmental engineering, engineering mechanics, sustainability, water resources, irrigation. hydraulics, hydrology, waterways, urban planning, cold regions ...Abstract free. Fulltext subscription.American Society of Civil Engineers
Association for Computing Machinery Digital LibraryComputer Science, EngineeringSubscriptionAssociation for Computing Machinery[19]
Astrophysics Data SystemAstrophysics, Geophysics, PhysicsFreeHarvard University[20]
ATLA Religion DatabaseReligious studiesProvides information on topics such as biblical studies, world religions, church history, and religion in social issuesSubscription[21]
AULIMP: Air University Library's Index to Military PeriodicalsMilitary ScienceFreeAir University[22]
BASE: Bielefeld Academic Search EngineMultidisciplinaryFreeBielefeld University[23]
Beilstein databaseOrganic chemistrySubscriptionAvailable from Elsevier under the product name Reaxys[24]
Biological AbstractsBiologyA complete collection of bibliographic references covering life science and biomedical research literature published from more than 4,000 journals internationally.SubscriptionAvailable from Thomson Reuters[25]
BioOneBiology, Ecology, and Environmental ScienceA full-text aggregation of more than 180 scientific journals publishing current research in Biodiversity Conservation, Biology, Ecology, Environmental Science, Entomology, Ornithology, Plant Science, and Zoology.Free abstract & references, Open Access titles, and SubscriptionAvailable from BioOne[26]
Bioinformatic HarvesterBiology, BioinformaticsA meta search engine for 50 major bioinformatic databases and projects.FreeAvailable from Liebel-Lab KIT Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Book Review Index OnlineBook reviewsSubscriptionThomson Gale[27]
Books In PrintBooksSubscriptionR.R. Bowker[28]
CAB AbstractsApplied life sciencesBibliographic information service providing access to applied life sciences literature.SubscriptionCABI[29]
Chemical Abstracts ServiceChemistrySubscriptionAmerican Chemical Society[30]
Chemisches Zentralblatt Structural DatabaseScience, Chemistryweb-based retrieval application that provides language independent access to the information contained in Chemisches ZentralblattSubscriptionAvailable from the InfoChem [31]
ChemXSeerChemistrythe projects seems abandoned in 2018FreePennsylvania State University[32]
Chinese Social Science Citation IndexSocial sciencesSubscriptionNanjing University[33]
Cochrane LibraryMedicine, HealthcareIncludes reviews of research to promote evidence-based healthcare.SubscriptionWiley Interscience[34]
CINAHL: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied HealthNursing, Allied HealthSubscriptionEBSCO[35]
CiNiiMultidisciplinaryDatabase of 15 million articles in the Japanese language from 3600 journals.Free abstracts; Subscription full-textNational Institute of Informatics[36]
CHBD: Circumpolar Health Bibliographic DatabaseMedicineFreeUniversity of Calgary[37]
Citebase SearchMathematics, Computer science, PhysicsSemi-autonomous citation index of free online researchFreeUniversity of Southampton[38]
CiteULikeComputer scienceFree
CiteSeerComputer ScienceReplaced by CiteSeerX.FreePennsylvania State University[39]
CiteSeerXComputer science, Statistics, Mathematics, becoming MultidisciplinaryFreePennsylvania State University[40]
Civil engineering databaseCivil engineeringA bibliographic database covering all of ASCE's publications since 1872FreeAmerican Society of Civil Engineers
CogPrints: Cognitive Sciences Eprint ArchivesScience (General)FreeUniversity of Southampton[41]
The Collection of Computer Science BibliographiesComputer scienceFreeAlf-Christian Achilles[42]
CompendexEngineeringElectronic version of Engineering Index.SubscriptionElsevier[43]
Current Index to StatisticsStatisticsLimited free search[44]SubscriptionAmerican Statistical Association and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics[45]
Current ContentsMultidisciplinaryPart of Web of Science. Contains 7 discipline-specific subsets.SubscriptionClarivate Analytics
Directory of Open Access JournalsJournalsThe Directory Of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) lists more than 10,000 open access journals (September 2014) in multiple research areas.[46]FreeLund University[47]
dblp computer science bibliographyComputer scienceComprehensive list of papers from major computer science conferences and journalsFreeProduced by Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz Center for Informatics and University of Trier, Germany[48]
EconBizEconomicsEconBiz supports research in and teaching of economics with a central entry point for all kinds of subject-specific information and direct access to full texts.FreeProduced by the ZBW- German National Library of Economics– Leibniz Information Centre for Economics (ZBW)[49]
EconLitEconomicsThe American Economic Association's electronic database, the world's foremost source of references to economic literature.SubscriptionProduced by the American Economic Association.[50] Available from EBSCOhost, ProQuest, OVID, and AEA.[51]
EMBASEBiomedicine, PharmacologyBiomedical database with a strong focus on drug and pharmaceutical research.SubscriptionElsevier[52]
ERIC: Educational Resource Information CenterEducationEducation literature and resources. Provides access to over 1.3 million records dating back to 1966.FreeProduced by the United States Department of Education.[53] Also available by subscription from OCLC, CSA.
Europe PMCBiomedicalA database of biomedical and life sciences literature with access to full-text research articles and citations.[54] Includes text-mining tools and links to external molecular and medical data sets. A partner in PMC International.[55]FreeEMBL-EBI[56]
FSTA – Food Science and Technology AbstractsFood science, Food technology, NutritionThe world's leading database of information on food science, food technology and nutritionSubscriptionProduced by IFIS Publishing. FSTA can be accessed through EBSCOhost,[57]IHS Inc.,[58]Ovid,[59]ProquestDialog,[60]STN[61] and Web of Science.[62]
GENESISWomen's historyDescriptions of women's history collections from sources in the UK, as well as women's history websites.FreeLondon Metropolitan University[63]
GeoRefGeosciencesSubscriptionAmerican Geosciences Institute
Global HealthPublic HealthSpecialist bibliographic, abstracting and indexing database dedicated to public health research and practice.SubscriptionCABI[64]
Golm Metabolome DatabaseMass spectrometryThe Golm Metabolome Database (GMD) is a reference mass spectra library of biologically active metabolites quantified using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS).Free online search; offline use by subscriptionGolm Metabolome Database[65]
Google ScholarMultidisciplinaryFreeGoogle[66]
GoPubMedMedicineGoPubMed, the first knowledge-based search engine for the life sciences industry.FreeTransinsight[67]
HCI BibliographyHuman-computer interfaceAn electronic bibliography for most of HCI for researchers, developers, educators, and studentsFreeGary Perlman[68]
HubMedMedicineAn alternative interface to the PubMed medical literature databaseFreeAlf Eaton[69]
IEEE XploreComputer Science, Engineering, ElectronicsSubscriptionIEEE[70]
Index CopernicusMultidisciplinary scienceScientific journal database – the IC Journal Master List – contains currently over 2,500 journals from all over the world, including 700 journals from Poland. The journals registered in this database underwent rigorous, multidimensional parameterization, proving high quality. The Ministry of Science and Higher Education acknowledged the IC Journal Master List by placing it on the list of scored databases, for being indexed in IC JML journals get additional points in the Ministry’s evaluation process.[71]FreeIndex Copernicus International[72]
Information Bridge: Department of Energy Scientific and Technical InformationMultidisciplinaryThe Information Bridge: DOE Scientific and Technical Information provides free public access to over 266,000 full-text documents and bibliographic citations of Department of Energy (DOE) research report literature. Documents are primarily from 1991 forward and were produced by DOE, the DOE contractor community, and/or DOE grantees. Legacy documents are added as they become available in electronic format.FreeUnited States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information[73]
InformitMultidisciplinaryAustralasian aggregator of bibliographic databases and journalsN/ARMIT Publishing[74]
IngentaConnectMultidisciplinaryFree searching; Subscription full-textIngenta[75]
Indian Citation IndexMultidisciplinaryIndian Citation Index (ICI) is a home grown abstracts and citation database, with multidisciplinary objective knowledge contents from about 1000 top Indian scholarly journals. It provides powerful search engine to fulfill search and evaluation purposes for researchers, policy makers, decision makers etc.SubscriptionICI[76]
IARPMultidisciplinaryOpen-access knowledge management system incorporating grants, publications, conferences in natural and social & behavioral sciences. The site provides tools to build graphic reports.FreeVolunteer Collaboration[77]
InspecPhysics, Engineering, Computer ScienceThe leading bibliographic database providing abstracts and indexing to the world's scientific and technical papers in physics, electrical engineering, electronics, communications, control engineering, computing, information technology, manufacturing, production, and mechanical engineering.SubscriptionIET[78]
INSPIRE-HEPPhysics, (High Energy)FreeCERN, DESY, Fermilab, SLAC and IHEP[79]
International Directory of PhilosophyPhilosophyContains information on university philosophy departments and programs, philosophical societies, research centers, journals, and philosophy publishers in the U.S., Canada, and approximately 130 other countries.Free search; full access by subscriptionPhilosophy Documentation Center[80]
IsidoreHumanities, social scienceIsidore is a platform of search allowing the access to digital data of Humanities and Social Sciences. It relies on the principles of Web of data and provides access to data in free access.FreeHuma-Num[81]
JournalSeekMultidisciplinaryOpen access journals in different languageLinks to journal's home page and publishersJournalSeek[82]
Journals TodayMultidisciplinaryLatest abstracts of reputed journals across disciplensFreeJournal Today[83]
JSTOR: Journal StorageMultidisciplinaryJSTOR Collections: Current Journals; Archived Journals (first issue through 3–5 years ago); Books; and Primary Source Collections
FREE Resources: 3 articles every 2 weeks (Register and Read Program, archived journals). Also, early journals (prior to 1923 in US, 1870 elsewhere) free, no registry necessary.
Free and SubscriptionJSTOR[84]
JurnMultidisciplinaryJurn is a free-to-use online search tool for finding and downloading free full-text scholarly works. In 2014 Jurn expanded beyond open access journals in the arts and humanities, to also index open journals in ecology, science, biomedical, business and economics. Jurn is actively curated and maintained.FreeJurn[85]
Lesson PlanetEducation (K-12)Over 400,000 teacher-reviewed classroom resources including lesson plans, worksheets, educational videos, and education articles.Free Abstract; Subscription full-textLesson Planet[86]
LexisNexisLaw (general)Electronic database for legal and public-records related informationSubscriptionReed Elsevier[87]
LingbuzzLinguisticsA free archive of linguistics articles, with a focus on syntax, semantics, phonology and morphology.FreeCenter for Advanced Study in Theoretical Linguistics, University of Tromsø[88]
MathSciNetMathematicsAvailable in print as Mathematical ReviewsSubscriptionAmerican Mathematical Society[89]
MedlinePlusMedicineFreeProduced by the United States National Library of Medicine, the United States National Institutes of Health, and the United States Department of Health and Human Services[90]
MendeleyMultidisciplinaryThe Mendeley research catalog is a crowdsourced database of research documents. Researchers have uploaded nearly 100M documents into the catalog with additional contributions coming directly from subject repositories like Pubmed Central and Arxiv.org or web crawls.FreeMendeley[91]
Merck IndexChemistry, Biology, PharmacologyAlso available in print.SubscriptionFormerly produced by Merck & Co.,[92] now available from the Royal Society of Chemistry[93]
Meteorological and Geoastrophysical AbstractsMeteorology, Astrophysics, GeologySubscriptionProduced by the American Meteorological Society. Available from Dialog[94] and CSA.[95]
NBER: National Bureau of Economic ResearchEconomicsFreeNational Bureau of Economic Research[96]
Microsoft AcademicMultidisciplinaryProvides many innovative ways to explore scientific papers, conferences, journals, and authors[97]FreeMicrosoft
MyScienceWorkScienceDatabase includes more than 70 million scientific publications and 12 million patents.FreeMyScienceWork
National Criminal Justice Reference Service[98]Criminology, SociologyAbstracts of scholarly journal articles, agency and NGO reports, and conference proceedingsFreeUnited States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs[99]
National Diet Library CollectionMultidisciplinaryJapanese. Catalog for the National Library of Japan.N/ANational Diet Library[100]
OAIsterMultidisciplinaryFreeOCLC[101]
OpenEdition.orgHumanities, social scienceOpenEdition offers the academic community four international-scale publication and information platforms in the humanities and social sciencesFreeCléo (UMS 3287) CNRSEHESSUniversity of Avignon[102]
OpenSIGLEGrey literatureIndexes European grey literature.FreeInstitut de l'information scientifique et technique[103]
Philosophy Documentation Center eCollectionApplied ethics, Philosophy, Religious studiesJournals, series, conference proceedings, and other works from several countries online.Free abstract & preview; Subscription full-textPhilosophy Documentation Center[104]
Philosophy Research IndexPhilosophyIndex of books, journals, disserations, and other documentsSubscriptionPhilosophy Documentation Center[104]
PhilPapersPhilosophyFreePhilPapers[105]
POIESIS: Philosophy Online SerialsPhilosophy, applied ethics, religious studiesJournals and series, online access for institutions with printFree abstract & preview; Subscription full-textPhilosophy Documentation Center[104]
POPLINEPopulation, Family Planning, Reproductive HealthPOPLINE® contains the world’s most comprehensive collection of population, family planning and related reproductive health and development literature. An international resource, POPLINE helps program managers, policy makers, and service providers in low- and middle-income countries and in development-supportive agencies and organizations gain access to journal articles and other scientific, technical, and programmatic publications.FreeKnowledge for Health, Center for Communication Programs, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health[106]
Project MUSEHumanities, social scienceProject MUSE is a provider of digital humanities and social science content for the scholarly community. MUSE provides full-text versions of scholarly journals and books.SubscriptionProject MUSE, Johns Hopkins University Press[107]
PsycINFOPsychologyThe largest resource devoted to peer-reviewed literature in behavioral science and mental health. It contains over 3.7 million records with bibliographic information and extensive indexing, more than 60 million cited references, and has comprehensive coverage dating back to the mid-19th century, with sporadic coverage going back as far as the 16th century.SubscriptionProduced by the APA.[108] Available from several database vendors.[109]
Psychology's Feminist VoicesPsychologyAn online, multimedia digital archive containing the profiles of 250 feminist psychologists who have shaped and continue to transform the discipline of psychology. Profiles are organized in two sections, "Women Past" and "Feminist Presence." All profiles on the Feminist Presence section contain original interview transcripts and video clips with the psychologist discussing their feminist development and academic career.FreeBased at York University, Toronto, Canada.[110]
PubChemChemistryFreeNational Center for Biotechnology Information and the U.S. National Library of Medicine[111]
PubgetMultidisciplinarySubscriptionPubget
PubMedBiomedicalA database primarily of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topicsFreeNational Institutes of Health and the U.S. National Library of Medicine[112]
PubPsychPsychologyPubPsych is a free information retrieval system for psychological resources. It offers a comprehensive and balanced selection of resources from a growing number of international databases with a European focus, covering the needs of academic and professional psychologists.FreeLeibniz Institute for Psychology Information
Questia: Online Research LibraryMultidisciplinary (Historical)SubscriptionQuestia[113]
Readers' Guide to Periodical LiteratureJournals and MagazinesCoverage: 1983–present.SubscriptionH. W. Wilson Company[114]
Reader's Guide Retrospective: 1890–1982Journals and MagazinesSubscriptionH. W. Wilson Company[115]
RePEc: Research Papers in EconomicsEconomicsFreeVolunteer Collaboration[116]
Retina medical searchBiomedicalBiomedical resources with special focus for medical professionals.

searches among physician level standard documents eliminating patient level materials.

FreeRetina medical search[117]
Rock's BackpagesMusicPrimary documents from the history of rock and rollSubscription. Limited free access with registration.Backpages Limited[118]
Russian Science Citation IndexScientific journalsA bibliographic database of scientific publications in Russian.FreeScientific Electronic Library[119]
SafetyLitMultidisciplinaryCitations and abstracts of journal articles and reports from researchers working in the more than 35 distinct professional disciplines (architecture - zoology) relevant to preventing unintentional injuries, violence, and self-harm.FreeSafetyLit Foundation[120] in cooperation with the Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University[121] and the World Health Organization's Department of Violence and Injury Prevention[122]
SciELOJournalsSciELO is a bibliographic database and a model for cooperative electronic publishing in developing countries originally from Brazil. It contains 985 scientific journals from different countries in free and universal access, full-text format.FreeFAPESP, CNPq and BIREME
Science.govMultidisciplinaryA gateway to government science information and research results. Science.gov provides a search of over 45 scientific databases and 200 million pages of science information with just one query, and is a gateway to over 2000 scientific Websites.FreeScience.gov Alliance, 18 scientific and technical organizations from 14 federal agencies that contribute to Science.gov. United States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information serves as the operating agent for Science.gov.[123]
Science AcceleratorMultidisciplinaryA gateway to results of DOE research and development and major R&D accomplishments of interest to DOE.FreeUnited States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information.[124]
Science Citation IndexScience (General)Part of Web of ScienceSubscriptionClarivate Analytics
ScienceOpenMultidisciplinarySearch engine for natural and physical sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Incorporates arXiv, PubMed, and SciELO. Integrated with ORCID for overlay and peer review services. All articles display Altmetric scores.FreeScienceOpen[125]
Scientific Information Database (SID)Engineering & Technology, Medical Science, Basic Science, Human SciencesIt is a free bank with multipurpose goals, containing Engineering & Technology, Medical, Basic Science, Human Sciences papers.FreeScientific Information Database[126]
SCIndeks - Serbian Citation IndexMultidisciplinaryA combination of an online multidisciplinary bibliographic database, a national citation index, an Open Access full-text journal repository and an electronic publishing platform.FreeCEON/CEES - Centre for Evaluation in Education and Science, Serbia[127]
ScopusMultidisciplinaryScopus is the world's largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed research literature. It contains over 20,500 titles from more than 5,000 international publishers. While it is a subscription product, authors can review and update their profiles via ORCID.org or by first searching for their profile at the free Scopus author lookup page.SubscriptionElsevier[128]
SearchTeamMultidisciplinaryStudents search together collaboratively for scholarly articles and resourcesFreeZakta[129]
Semantic ScholarComputer scienceIt is designed to quickly highlight the most important papers and identify the connections between them. It includes currently only computer science publications.FreeAllen Institute for Artificial Intelligence[130]
Social Science Citation IndexSocial sciencePart of Web of ScienceSubscriptionClarivate Analytics[131]
Socol@r: SocolarMultidisciplinaryScholarly open access resources in different languageFree abstracts; Links to full-textSocolar[132]
SPRESI DatabaseScience, Chemistrychemical structure and reaction database, product name: SPRESIweb, SPRESImobileSubscriptionAvailable from InfoChem [31]
SSRN: Social Science Research NetworkSocial scienceContains an abstracts database and an electronic paper collection, arranged by discipline.FreeSocial Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.[133]
SparrhoMultidisciplinarySparrho is a personalised platform that allows users to discover, curate and share over 60 million scientific research articles and patents from 45k+ journals and preprint servers.FreeSparrho[134]
INSPIRE-HEPPhysics, (High Energy)FreeCERN, DESY, Fermilab, SLAC and IHEP[79]
SpringerLinkMultidisciplinaryFree abstract & preview; Subscription full-textSpringer[135]
Ulrich's Periodicals DirectoryPeriodicalsSubscriptionProQuest[136]
VET-BibSocial Science, EducationEuropean vocational education and training (VET) literatureFreeEuropean Centre for the Development of Vocational Training[137]
Web of ScienceMultidisciplinaryIncludes other products, such as Social Science Citation Index, Science Citation Index, Biological Abstracts & The Zoological RecordSubscriptionClarivate Analytics[138]
WestLawLaw (General)SubscriptionThomson Reuters
WorldCatMultidisciplinaryUnified catalog of member libraries' catalogsFree & SubscriptionOCLC[139]
WorldWideScienceMultidisciplinaryWorldWideScience is a global science gateway composed of national and international scientific databases and portals. WorldWideScience accelerates scientific discovery and progress by providing one-stop searching of databases from around the world. Multilingual WorldWideScience provides real-time searching and translation of globally dispersed multilingual scientific literature.FreeThe WorldWideScience Alliance, a multilateral partnership, consists of participating member countries and provides the governance structure for WorldWideScience. United States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information serves as the operating agent for WorldWideScience.[140]
Zasshi Kiji Sakuin: Japanese Periodicals IndexJournalsJapanese.N/ANational Diet Library's Online Catalog,[141]MagazinePlus,[142]CiNii[143]
Zentralblatt MATHMathematicsFirst three records free without subscription.SubscriptionSpringer Science+Business Media[144]
The Zoological RecordZoologyUnofficial register of scientific names & papers in Zoology. Coverage 1864–present.SubscriptionClarivate Analytics[145]

See also[edit]

Main categories: Scholarly databases and Scholarly search services

See also: the categories Full text scholarly online databases and Bibliographic databases and indexes.

References[edit]

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